The entire district forms a part of the Deccan Plateau and is made up mostly of solidified lava. The northern part of the district is characterized by expanses of level and treeless surface punctuated here and there by flat and undulating hillocks, black soils and basaltic rocks. The southern half of the district is a high plateau about 715 m above mean sea level and are well drained. The average elevation of the district is between 580 to 610 m above mean sea level. Alluvial deposit is normally found along the banks of the Manjra river and its main tributaries
The district is entirely covered by the Deccan trap flows of the tertiary period. The Deccan trap is composed of horizontal flows of basaltic lava. They generally form flat-topped hillocks and terrace-like features. The physical characteristics of individual flows show considerable variations. Some flows are hard and massive while others are weathered, soft and friable. This character has resulted in terraced landscape, suddenly ending in escarpments. The traps are seen generally 618 m above mean sea level. These are jointed and show the characteristics of spherical weathering leaving massive hard cores. Columnar jointing is predominantly developed in these rocks, besides horizontal joints, which impart to the rocks bedded appearance. The top layers of the Deccan trap in parts of Bidar and Humnabad taluk are altered to reddish vesicular laterite, forming and extensive undulating plateau.
The minerals found in the area are Bauxite, Kaolin and Red ochre. A deposit of highly siliceous bauxite clay has been located about three kilometers south of Basavakalyan. Similar deposits are noticed near Alwal and Kamthana Villages of Bidar taluk. A large deposit of Kaolin is located near Kamthana village. Red ochre deposits are found near Sirsi and Aurad Village.
Two types of soils founds in the district are Lateritic red soil and black cotton soil. Aurad and Bhalki taluks have mainly black cotton soil. Bidar and Humnabad taluks have mainly lateritic red soil. Basavakalyan taluk has both types of soils.